Art Nouveau / Jugendstil (1890-1914)

Art Nouveau  was the most important international style between 1890 and 1910. It was inspired by the flexibility of Iron and Concrete structures, and by the beauty of natural forms, in particular the curved lines of plants and flowers. It was known in Germany as Jugendstil.

Lithographic poster by Mucha, Dancel (1898)
Lithographic poster by Mucha, Dancel (1898)

Image Source: http://www.essential-architecture.com/STYLE/STY-M03.htm


 

Art Nouveau- Architecture

BelgiumHenri van de Velde(1863-1937)used a rigid floral style (his house at Uccle, 1895).

Hotel Tassel, Brussels
Hotel Tassel, Brussels

Victor Horta(1861-1947) designed Hotel Tassel, 1892-3, and the Maison du Peuple, 1896-9 in Brussels. For the Tassel house he opened up the centre into a sort of conservatory space in which the exposed cast iron supports are themselves stylised plants. And the Maison du Peuple he constructed around a sinuous iron frame, every decorative element of which arose from the containment of stresses.

Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H%C3%B4tel_Tassel


In France, Art Nouveau-style nineteenth century architecture had the State’s seal of approval when Guimard’s designs for the Paris Metro stations were accepted, and above the subways (1898-1900) sprouted elaborate arrangements of iron and glass resembling large bean shoots and seed-pods. Hector Guimard (1867-1942) had liked Horta’s work in Brussels and hoped to extend its radical disruption of expected architectural behaviour.

Paris Metro station, designed by Guimard
Paris Metro station, designed by Guimard

Image source: http://www.metrodemontreal.com/art/guimard/metro.html

AmericaLouis Sullivan (1856-1924) – the Wainwright Building, St Louis (1890), the Guaranty Building, Buffalo (1894), the Carson, Pirie & Scott Store, Chicago (1899-1904) – reveal in their facades, their honeycomb insides and the strips and panels which divide the cells a riot of plant-like ornament.

Info source: http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/history-of-art/art-nouveau.htm

The jewellry shop of Georges Fouquet (Paris) designed by Alphonse Mucha (1901)
The jewellry shop of Georges Fouquet (Paris) designed by Alphonse Mucha (1901)

Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_Nouveau

Art nouveau Characteristics

  • Extreme Curves inspired by nature; the bending of the grass in the wind, or the arch of a new plant reaching for the sun. These curvy lines connect the images in the art and can even be found in beautified plain items, such as dishes, eating utensils, hardware and furniture.
  • Images of flowers, plants, birds or insects into These are often carved or inlaid into the furniture as decoration.
  • Patterns of Curving Lines These lines may look like seaweed waving in the ocean or a cluster of daisies weaving in and out of one another. Images of vines that climb the sides of the furniture are also common.
  • Use of symbols

Info source: http://www.artnewsnviews.com/

Cabinet by Louis Majorelle ,1900
Cabinet by Louis Majorelle,1900

 

Image source:  https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Art_Nouveau_furniture

 

1896 edition cover of Jugend
1896 edition cover of Jugend

Jugendstil was the artistic style that arose in Germany, deriving its name from the Munich magazine Die Jugend (“Youth”), which featured Art Nouveau designs. Two phases can be discerned in Jugendstil: an early one, before 1900, that is mainly floral in character, rooted in English Art Nouveau and Japanese applied arts and prints; and a later, more abstract phase, growing out of the Viennese work of the Belgian-born architect and designer Henry van de Velde.

Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jugend_(magazine)

Info source: https://www.britannica.com/art/Jugendstil

 

Jugendstil Artists

Otto Eckmann (1865 –1902)was a German painter and graphic artist. He also31 created the Eckmann typeface, which was based on Japanese calligraphy. His favourite animal was the swan, and such was his influence in the German movement that the swan came to serve as the leitmotif for the Jugendstil.

Richard Riemerschmid (1868 –1957) was a German architect, painter, designer and city planner from Munich. He was a major figure in Jugendstil, the German form of Art Nouveau, and a founder of architecture in the style. He designed the site plan, the factory and some of the housing for Hellerau (now part of Dresden), which was the first garden city of the English type to be built in Germany. As an architect, he is known particularly for his houses: his own house in Munich, the Villa Fischel in Kiel, the Fieser villa in Baden-Baden, and the Frank villa in Göttingen and country house in Witzenhausen.

Info source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Riemerschmid

Hermann Obrist (1863-1927) was a German sculptor, known fos his wall hanging Cyclamen (1892-94).

 Cyclamen (1892-94)
Cyclamen (1892-94)

Image source: http://www.johncoulthart.com/feuilleton/2010/06/14/hermann-obrist-art-nouveau-sculptor/

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