The Arts and Crafts was a design movement emerged during the late Victorian period. It began in Britain, the most industrialized country in the world at the time, and spread across America,Europe and finally in Japan.
The Origins of the Movement
In Britain the disastrous effects of industrial manufacture and unregulated trade had been recognised since about 1840, but it was not until the 1860s and 1870s that architects, designers and artists began to pioneer new approaches to design and the decorative arts. These, in turn, led to the foundation of the Arts and Crafts Movement.
Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arts_and_Crafts_movement
By 1860 a vocal minority had become profoundly disturbed by the level to which style, craftsmanship, and public taste had sunk in the wake of the Industrial Revolution and its mass-produced and banal decorative arts. Among them was the English reformer, poet, and designer William Morris, who, in 1861, founded a firm of interior decorators and manufacturers—Morris, Marshall, Faulkner, and Company (after 1875, Morris and Company)—dedicated to recapturing the spirit and quality of medievalcraftsmanship. Morris and his associates (among them the architect Philip Webb and the painters Ford Madox Brown and Edward Burne-Jones) produced handcrafted metalwork, jewelry, wallpaper, textiles, furniture, and books.
Red House, in Bexleyheath, London-designed in 1859 by architect Philip Webb, exemplifies the early Arts and Crafts style, with its well-proportioned solid forms, wide porches, steep roof, pointed window arches, brick fireplaces and wooden fittings.
info and image sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Red_House,_London
Holy Trinity,London- is one of the examples of the Arts and Crafts Movement’s ecclesiastical work. It was described by the poet John Betjeman as the ‘Cathedral of the Arts & Crafts Movement’. The architect was John Dando Sedding. To this end, he commissioned his colleagues in the Art Workers Guild to produce decorative work and statuary in stone and metal.
Info source: www.holytrinitysloanestreet.co.uk
Goddards House and Garden is an Arts and Crafts house in Dringhouses, York, England. The garden was designed by George Dillistone, who divided it into four several distinct areas, including a terrace and a series of rooms separated by shrubs, hedges and a herbaceous border. These enclosures included a tennis court and a bowling green used as a croquet lawn.
Info and image sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Goddards_House_and_Garden
Hidcote Manor Garden designed by Lawrence Johnston which is also laid out in a series of outdoor rooms and where, like Goddards, the landscaping becomes less formal further away from the house.
Arts and Crafts style furniture originally spread across America during the Arts and Crafts movement of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
- Arts and Crafts style furniture was simplistic with little to no decorative flair, designed to impress on functionality and comfort.
- simple rectilinear design
- simple arches or curves
- rich, natural, solid woods
- eased edges
- high quality, refined craftsmanship
- decoration through craftsmanship (not elaborate ornamentation)
- functionality serving a household purpose