International Style was an Architectural and Design Style developed in Europe and United States. The term ‘International Style’ was first used in 1932 by Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson in their Modern Architecture: International Exhibition.
International style- Characteristics
- The development of new building technologies centring on the use of iron and steel, reinforced concrete, and glass.
- Economical, and utilitarian architecture that would both use the new materials and satisfy society’s new building needs while still appealing to aesthetic.
- Technology was a crucial factor; the new availability of cheap, mass-produced iron.
- The new use of steel-reinforced concrete as secondary support elements (floors, etc.) and of glass as sheathing for the exteriors of buildings completed the technology needed for modern building.
MOMA Exhibition and Architects
The exhibition Modern Architecture: International Exhibition opened on 1932, at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA), in the New York. The exhibition is significant for its focused approach to the architectural exhibition. It was driven by a desire to promote and consolidate the theory of international modernism.
International Style- Architects
Pioneer practitioners of the International Style included a group of brilliant and original architects in the 1920s who went on to achieve enormous influence in their field. These figures included Walter Gropius (1883-1969) in Germany, J.J.P. Oud (1890-1963) in Holland, Le Corbusier (1887-1965) in France, and Richard Neutra (1892-1970), Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1886-1969), and Philip Johnson (1906-2005) in the United States.
Charles-Édouard Jeanneret, known as Le Corbusier (1887 – 1965), was a Swiss-French architect, designer, painter, urban planner, writer. His best known work of International style was Villa Savoye (1923-1931).
Image and info source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Villa_Savoye
Villa Savoye- is a modernist villa in Poissy, on the outskirts of Paris, France. It was designed addressing emblematic “Five Points” of Le Corbusier, the basic tenets in new architectural aesthetic:
- Support of ground-level pilotis, elevating the building from the earth and allowed an extended continuity of the garden beneath.
- Functional roof, serving as a garden and terrace, reclaiming for nature the land occupied by the building.
- Free floor plan, relieved of load-bearing walls, allowing walls to be placed freely and only where aesthetically needed.
- Long horizontal windows, providing illumination and ventilation.
- Freely-designed facades, serving only as a skin of the wall and windows and unconstrained by load-bearing considerations.
Richard Neutra (1892-1970) was an austrian-american architect. His design for the Lovell (Health) House (1929), Los Angeles, with balconies suspended by steel cables from the roof frame, was, in retrospect, one of the most important works of his career. The open-web skeleton was transported to the steep hillside by truck. Neutra’s architecture was usually rectangular and straight-lined, unmistakably man-made, yet always sensitive to the site.
Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lovell_House