Medieval Styles developed during the Middle Ages and included major art movements and periods, national and regional art, genres, revivals, artists crafts.
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The period from the early 6th to the early 11th century also saw the Muslim conquest of the Iberian Peninsula and Southern Italy, Viking raids in the British isles and western France, and Magyar invasions in Central Europe.
- Religious architecture that dominated in Anglo-Saxon Britain were generally simple and modest
Image source: https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallarus_Oratory
- The Iberian Peninsula was dominated by the and architecture characterized by horse-shoe arches and animal or plant motifs until the Muslim conquest in the first half of the 8th century.
- Later Carolingian architecture was marked by some innovations such as the ambulatory behind the apse and introduction of crypts which usually contained sarcophagi, coffins or relicts of important peoples and saints. The most notable innovation of the later Carolingian architecture was probably the westworks, a monumental west-facing entrance section. Manuscript illuminations or miniatures, colored and gilded pictures represent the greatest achievement of the Carolingian art.
Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carolingian_art
- Ottonian architecture was a continuation of the Carolingian and Byzantine styles but combined both architectural styles with distinctive German forms.
Romanesque architects built a wide variety of different buildings, of which the most common were: village churches, abbey churches, cathedrals and castles. The most important were the great abbey churches, many of which are in use. Typical characteristics of Romanesque architecture include:
- Semi-circular arches– Most arches were semi-circular although a few buildings have pointed arches. Narrow windows/doors might be topped by a stone lintel. Larger openings were nearly always arched.
•Thick walls– These massive supporting walls had few and comparatively small openings and almost eliminated the need for buttresses.
• Arcades-These were a particularly popular feature. An arcade consists of a row of arches, supported on either columns or piers. Columns were either drum columns (if small) or hollow core (if large). Piers were typically built out of masonry and were either square or rectangular. Capitals on columns were usually of the foliate Corinthian style.
• Roofs– These were made from wood, then stone. Vaulted roofs generally featured barrel-vaults and groin vaults made of stone or brick.
• Towers– These were a regular feature of Romanesque churches. Types included: square, circular and octagonal towers.
A Gothic cathedral or abbey was generally the landmark building in its town, rising high above all the domestic structures and often surmounted by one or more towers and pinnacles and perhaps tall spires. It is in the architecture of these Gothic churches that a unique combination of existing technologies established the emergence of a new building style. Those technologies were the ogival or pointed arch, the ribbed vault, and the buttress.
The Gothic style, when applied to an ecclesiastical building, emphasizes verticality and light. This appearance was achieved by the development of certain architectural features, which together provided an engineering solution. The structural parts of the building ceased to be its solid walls, and became a stone skeleton comprising clustered columns, pointed ribbed vaults and flying buttresses.
Info and image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gothic_architecture