Classic Style (Greek-Roman)

Classic Styles are represented by the main Three Orders of Architecture, Doric, Ionic, Corinthian, plus the Tuscan and Composite Styles.

An illustration of the Five Architectural Orders engraved for the Encyclopédie, vol. 18, showing the Tuscan and Doric orders (top row); two versions of the Ionic order (center row); Corinthian and Composite orders (bottom row).
An illustration of the Five Architectural Orders engraved for the Encyclopédie, vol. 18, showing the Tuscan and Doric orders (top row); two versions of the Ionic order (center row); Corinthian and Composite orders (bottom row).

Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Classical_order

 

Classic styles- characteristics

Doric order– characterized by a slightly tapered column. The Greek forms of the Doric order have no individual base and instead rest directly on the stylobate. The Doric shaft is channeled with 20 shallow flutes. The capital, as stated before, consists of a simple necking. The frieze section of the Doric entablature is distinctive. It is composed of projecting triglyphs (units each consisting of three vertical bands separated by grooves) that alternate with receding square panels, called metopes, that may be either plain or carved with sculptured reliefs.

Info source: https://www.britannica.com/technology/order-architecture

Doric order
Doric order

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Ionic order– A column was made up of several parts. The base is the stone platform at the bottom of the column. On top of the base is the shaft, the long part of the column with groves running down the sides. At the very top is the capital, the decorative stone that bears the weight of the roof. Ionic columns tend to be more slender, but the defining feature of the Ionic order is the volute. The volute is the spiral, scroll-like capital of the Ionic column. esides a column, the Ionic order also has specific entablature. The entablature is the part of the roof that rests on top of the column and consists of the architrave, the frieze, and the cornice:

  • The architrave is the long beam that supports the weight directly above the column.
  • The frieze is a strip above the architrave.
  • And the cornice is the top weight-bearing part which juts outwards.

Info source: http://study.com/academy/lesson/ionic-order-of-greek-architecture-definition-example-buildings-quiz.html

Ionic order
Ionic order

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Corinthian order is the most elegant of the five orders. Its distinguishing characteristic is the striking capital, which is carved with two staggered rows of stylized acanthus leaves and four scrolls. The shaft has 24 sharp-edged flutes, while the column is 10 diameters high.

Info source: https://www.britannica.com/technology/order-architecture

Corinthian order
Corinthian order

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Tuscan Order- One of the five Roman Orders of architecture identified during the Renaissance. It resembles Roman Doric, but has no triglyphs on its unadorned frieze. Its base is very plain, consisting of a square plinth-block supporting a large torus over which is the fillet and apophyge creating the transition to the plain unfluted shaft (often with an entasis more pronounced than in the other Orders). At the top of the shaft is another apophyge and fillet, then an unadorned astragal over which is a neck or hypotrachelium, then another fillet or fillets, a plain echinus, and a square abacus, usually with a simple fillet at the top, but sometimes an unmoulded block. The entablature has a plain architrave, plain frieze, and crowning cornice of simple bed-moulds, and a cyma recta on top, and there are no modillions, dentils, mutules, or enrichment of any sort.

Tuscan Order
Tuscan Order

Image source: http://www.yourdictionary.com/tuscan-order

 

Composite Order- is a mixed order, combining the volutes of the Ionic order capital with the acanthus leaves of the Corinthian order. In many versions the composite order volutes are larger, however, and there is generally some ornament placed centrally between the volutes. The column of the composite order is typically ten diameters high, though as with all the orders these details may be adjusted by the architect for particular buildings. The Composite order is essentially treated as Corinthian except for the capital, with no consistent differences to that above or below the capital.

Info Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Composite_order

Composite Order
Composite Order

Image Source: http://www.yourdictionary.com/composite-order