Composite Order

The Classical Composite Order was developed in Rome. It is called ‘composite’ because it combines the volutes of the Ionic order with the acanthus leaves of the Corinthian.

 Composite order column
Composite order column

Image source: http://www.yourdictionary.com/composite-order



 

Composite order

The Roman orders comprised the Greek orders revisited (Doric, Ionic and Corinthian) plus their own additions (Tuscan and Composite). The orders were rediscovered during the Renaissance. They based their definitions on the writings of Roman architect Vitruvius and on first-hand observations of the buildings the latter described in De Architectura (Ten Books of Architecture).

Info source: https://www.theguardian.com/artanddesign/2011/sep/10/identify-roman-orders-architecture

Five roman orders
Five roman orders

Imagesource: https://www.britannica.com/technology/order-architecture

Composite order- Characteristics

  • Columns are tall and slender; it is 10 diameters high.
  • Capitals have acanthus leaves with big scrolls and its entablature sports an ostentatiously sculpted frieze and cornice.
  • The volutes of the Ionic capital were adapted from Phoenician and Egyptian capital designs. The volutes are larger and there is generally some ornament placed centrally between the volutes.
  • The order determines the shape, proportion and decoration of the basic architectural elements: the vertical, supporting column (with its base, shaft and capital) and the horizontal, supported entablature.
  • Entablatures are the tallest of all the orders at a height of 2 diameters; it is divided into three registers, from bottom to top: the architrave, frieze and cornice.
  • Composite order displays decoration that reflects a sense of triumph; it was utilized to represent victory, prestige, opulence and success.
Facade of Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane by Francesco Borromini
Church of San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane by Francesco Borromini

Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/San_Carlo_alle_Quattro_Fontane

Arch of Titus (AD 82) in Forum in Rome, constructed  by the emperor Domitian after the death of his brother Titus to commemorate him.

Arch of Titus
Arch of Titus

Imagesource: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arch_of_Titus

Composite Order Today

Palazzo Madama, Turin– It was the first Senate of the Italian Kingdom, and takes its traditional name from the embellishments it received under two queens (madama) of the House of Savoy.

Palazzo Madama, Turin- inside
Palazzo Madama, Turin- inside

Image source: https://it.pinterest.com/massimilianoare/palazzo-madama-torino/

Lescot Wing is is the oldest portion above ground of the Louvre Palace, in ParisFrance. It was executed to the designs of the architect Pierre Lescot between 1546 and 1551.

Lescot Wing
Lescot Wing

Image source: http://shop.columns.com/classical-orders-composite.aspx