Modern (1920 – 1980)

Modern Design dominated the 20th Century. It lays its foundation in Modernist movements , and includes Expressionism, Abstractism, Neo plasticism, Functionalism, Rationalism and  International Style.

Kauffman Fallingwater
Kauffman Fallingwater

Image source: http://www.cuded.com/2014/04/famous-architecture-of-the-world/


 

Modern style- Architecture

  • One of the main features of modern architecture is simplicity in design and form.
  • Modern design encourages homes to be clean, functional and simple. The inner workings of the home tend to be visible: beams and other structural elements are exposed to the viewer.
  • Lines are highly important in the design, and the physical elements of the building, such as beams, posts, windows, staircases and fireplaces, are used to assist the creation of a linear space. The lines are typically straight and angled, and roof lines are bold. Homes often have multiple roof lines at varying levels. The exterior design of the home isn’t simply functional but artistic.
  • Open floor plans with fewer walls, creating a space in which the living, dining and kitchen areas are all combined. Sometimes fireplaces are used as an accent. Windows are used in the design to bring in light. Modern homes often have floor-to-ceiling or above-eye-level windows and sliding doors to bring in more natural light, and the building materials tend to be left in their organic state.

Info source: https://www.reference.com/art-literature/characteristics-modern-architecture-dee36c0aeb26e739

Modern Architecture, functionalist example
Modern Architecture, functionalist example

Image source: http://www.dailyicon.net/tag/functionalism/

Modern Architecture Examples

The Winslow House is a Frank Lloyd Wright-designed house located in River Forest, Illinois and it was built in 1893-94.

The house’s design is inspired by the works of Wright’s mentor Louis Sullivan and anticipates Wright’s mature Prairie School buildings of the next decade. Sheltered beneath a low-pitched roof with wide eaves, the home is symmetrical and horizontally divided into a stone section, a golden Roman brick section, and a terra cotta frieze of Sullivanesque ornament. In contrast to the calm and balanced front facade, the rear is a mass of irregular geometric forms. The interior echoes both Wright’s own home and the Charnley House with the fireplace at the center facing the entry with rooms on either side and a hidden main staircase.

Winslow House
Winslow House

Info and image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Winslow_House_(River_Forest,_Illinois)

 

 

Weissenhof-Siedlung Houses 14 and 15
Weissenhof-Siedlung Houses 14 and 15

The two-family structure known as Houses 14 and 15, designed by Le Corbusier and Pierre Jeanneret in 1927, is  located on the outskirts of Stuttgart.  A progressive precedent for the emerging International Style, Le Corbusier’s work in Stuttgart serves as a critical prototype in the development and realization of the Swiss architect’s architectural identity, which would revolutionize 20th century architecture.

Info and image source: http://www.archdaily.com/490048/ad-classics-weissenhof-siedlung-houses-14-and-15-le-corbusier-and-pierre-jeanneret

 

The Grand Rex is a cinema in Paris. It is noted for its sumptuous decoration and its outsized main auditorium, which is the largest cinema theatre in Europe.

An atmospheric theatre in American parlance, the Grand Rex’s main auditorium features a starred ceiling and fairytale decorations on both sides of the screen, including water features. The cinema’s external facade, out of proportion to neighboring buildings, features large neon signs and an art deco style tower. The cinema is considered to be a landmark of art deco architecture.

Info source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Grand_Rex

Grand Rex, Paris
Grand Rex, Paris

Image source: http://madaboutparis.com/paris-stories/le-grand-rex-old-grandeur.html

 

Modern Design

  • Functionality is important, as form follows function.
  • Uncluttered and sleek lines with both organic and geometric forms.
  • Minimal ornamentation.
  • Juxtaposition of different, and sometimes contrasting materials.
  • New methods of construction and new materials such as plastic.
  • Liberal use of traditional material, such as wood, and non-traditional materials such as metal, glass, vinyl, plywood, Plexiglass and Lucite.

Info source: https://www.thespruce.com/things-you-should-know-about-mid-century-1391827

 

Living Room of Dr. J. F. Clarke, Fairfield, Iowa, 1915 Alfonso Iannelli, Designer; Barry Byrne, Architect
Living Room of Dr. J. F. Clarke, Fairfield, Iowa, 1915 Alfonso Iannelli, Designer; Barry Byrne, Architect

image source: http://www.architechgallery.com/arch_info/exhibit_docs/exhibitions_2005/designed_living.html