Pre-Modern Styles anticipated the more defined Modern Architecture and Design, it included different movements, schools and authors such as Thonet, The Shakers, Arts and Crafts and the Glasgow School.
Michael Thonet was born in 1796 and he was a cabinet maker. He had perfected a process of making furniture out of a combination of bent and glued wooden slats. The Boppard Layerwood Chair was his first true success, although he failed to get a patent for the technology he created to make the chair from several different countries.
Image source: http://bestautoparts.us/michael-thonet-furniture
- Use of light, strong types of wood that were bent into curved, very graceful forms thanks to the use of hot steam.
- Creation of a myriad of designs that were unique, comfortable and quite durable.
Image source: http://www.technologystudent.com/prddes1/thonet1.html
- Is characterized by a lack of ornamental design in the woodwork.
- The hallmark values of Shaker-furniture are fine craftsmanship, utility and simplicity.
- It was held that ornamentation would not be practiced by believers, and therefore what we know today is a simple, utilitarian design was born.
- It was believed that all things were done in the spirit of religion. The commitment to spirituality fostered perfection in craftsmanship with no shortcuts taken.
The Arts and Crafts movement was made up of English designers and writers who wanted a return to well-made, handcrafted goods instead of mass-produced, poor quality machine-made items.
- simple forms with litt
- beauty of natural materials.
- copper and pewter – often with a hammered finish.
- stylised flowers, allegories from the Bible and literature, upside down hearts, Celtic motifs.
Image source: http://www.vam.ac.uk/page/a/arts-and-crafts/
The Glasgow School was a circle of influential artists and designers that began to coalesce in Glasgow, Scotland in the 1870s, and flourished from the 1890s to around 1910. Representative groups included The Four (also known as the Spook School): Margaret MacDonald, the architect Charles Rennie Mackintosh, MacDonald’s sister Frances and Herbert McNair , the Glasgow Girls and the Glasgow Boys. They were responsible for creating the distinctive Glasgow Style.
Info and image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_School