Pre-Modern Style included different sensibilities, movements, and artists such as Thonet, The Shakers, Arts and Crafts, Chicago and Glasgow Schools.
Michael Thonet was born in 1796 and was a cabinetmaker. He invented a new process of making furnishings out of bent and glued wooden parts. The Boppard Layerwood Chair was his first true success, although he failed in getting a patent for the technology he used to design it.
Image source: https://www.boisbuchet.org/collection/boppard-chair/
This style has no ornaments in the design of the woodwork. The most relevant values of Shaker furniture are good craftsmanship, functionality, and simplicity, and it was believed that all things were meant to be created in the name of religion. Thus, the concern of spirituality looked for perfection in craftsmanship without taking shortcuts.
Arts and Crafts
A group of English designers and writers that wanted a return to well-made by hand, goods began the Arts and Crafts movement. From this movement, come stylized flowers, allegoric figures from the Bible, and literature.
The Glasgow School was born as a circle of influential artists and designers that began to work together in Glasgow. Famous groups included “The Four:” Margaret MacDonald, Charles Rennie Mackintosh, MacDonald’s sister Frances and Herbert McNair.
Much of its early work is also known as the Commercial Style. In the history of art, the first Chicago School was a movement of architects active in Chicago at the beginning of the 20th century. They started promoting new technologies of steel-frame construction in commercial structures, along with emphasis on space. Then, a Second Chicago School started designing with new building technologies structural systems.
Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montauk_Building