Pre-Modern Style included different sensibilities, movements and artists such as Thonet, The Shakers, Arts and Crafts, the Chicago and Glasgow Schools.
Michael Thonet was born in 1796. He was a cabinet maker. He had projected a new process of making furnishings out of a combination of bent and glued wooden parts. The Boppard Layerwood Chair was his first true success, although he failed in getting a patent for the technology he used to design it.
Image source: http://museum-boppard.de/explore/thonet/
It has no ornaments in the design of the woodworks. The most relevant values of Shaker furniture are good craftsmanship, functionality and simplicity. It was believed that all things were meant to be created in the name of religion. The concern for spirituality looked for perfection in craftsmanship without taking shortcuts.
The Arts and Crafts movement was made created by a group of English designers and writers that wanted a return to good made by hands, goods poor quality products. This will to create something unique, had as a result, stylised flowers, allegoric figures from the Bible and literature, for example.
Image source: http://www.vam.ac.uk/page/a/arts-and-crafts/
The Glasgow School was born as a circle of influential artists and designers that began to work together in Glasgow. Famous groups included “The Four”: Margaret MacDonald, the architect Charles Rennie Mackintosh, MacDonald’s sister Frances and Herbert McNair. They wereimportant in the creation of the distinctive Glasgow Style.
Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_School
Much of its early work is also known as Commercial style. In the history of art, the first Chicago School was a movement of architects active in Chicago at the beginning of the 20th century. They started promoting new technologies of steel-frame construction in commercial structures, along with the concern for the use of space. A Second Chicago School started designing with new building technologies structural systems.
Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montauk_Building
Info source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Thonet