Textile Industry

Textile factories significantly grew during the First Industrial Revolution, especially British ones.

Mechanized textiles factory of the 18/19th century.

image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution#/media/File:Powerloom_weaving_in_1835.jpg

The growing demand for clothing and cloth was satisfied by the integration of machinery in the factory system. Several inventions in textile machinery occurred in a relatively short period during the Industrial Revolution. Since they made weaving cloth and spinning yarn and thread much easier, producing cloth became faster and required less time and far less human labor.

Here is a timeline of the most interesting news:


Flying shuttle: invented by John Kay: an improvement in looms that allowed weavers to weave faster.

Machine for opening and dressing wool that incorporated the flying shuttle.

image source: https://twitter.com/sim_manchester/status/868008853325193216


Cotton mills were opened for the first time in England.


Spinning jenny invented by James Hargreaves: the first machine to improve the spinning wheel, patented in 1770.

Spinning jenny

image source: https://www.thoughtco.com/industrial-revolution-in-pictures-1991940


Richard Arkwright patented the water loom: the first motorized textile machine.

R. Arkwright’s water frame.

image source: https://medium.com/@ghazalakkas/inventions-in-the-textile-industry-spinning-frame-caedcd3ce490


The first all-cotton fabrics were produced in factories.


Crompton invented the spinning mule favoring greater control over the weaving process.

Crompton’s spinning mule.

image source: https://www.sutori.com/item/samuel-crompton-1779-the-spinning-mule-was-made-of-combined-feature-from-he-wate


Cartwright patented the electric loom which was later improved by William Horrocks, known for his invention of the variable speed baton in 1813.

The power loom

image source: https://sites.google.com/a/masdstudent.org/inventions-that-changed-america—the-industrial-revolution/4-the-power-loom


Samuel Slater brought textile machinery design to the United States, spreading the effects of the British Industrial Revolution for the first time.


Arkwright built the first steam-powered textile factory in Nottingham, England.


Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin: the machine that automated the separation of cottonseed from short-staple cotton fiber.

Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin.

image source: http://ushaplahs201617.blogspot.com/2016/09/the-entrepreneurial-spirit-of-eli.html?m=0


Joseph Marie Jacquard invented the Jacquard Loom that wove complex designs, inventing a way to automatically control the warp and weft threads on a silk loom by recording hole patterns in a series of papers.

The Jacquard Loom

image source: http://historicdress.org/omeka/items/show/331


William Horrocks invented the variable speed baton for an improved electric loom.


 William Perkin invented the first synthetic dye.

Info sources: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution#Textile_manufacture  https://www.thoughtco.com/textile-machinery-industrial-revolution-4076291