Textile Industry

Textile factories significantly grew during the First Industrial Revolution, especially british ones.

Mechanized textiles factory of the 18/19th century.

image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution#/media/File:Powerloom_weaving_in_1835.jpg

The growing demand for clothing and cloth was satisfied by the integration of machinery in the factory system. In fact, several inventions in textile machinery occurred in a relatively short time period during the Industrial Revolution. Since they made weaving cloth and spinning yarn and thread much easier, producing cloth became faster and required less time and far less human labor.

Here is a timeline highlighting the most interesting innovations:

1733 

Flying shuttle: invented by John Kay: an improvement to looms that enabled weavers to weave faster.

Machine for opening and dressing wool that incorporated the flying shuttle.

image source: https://twitter.com/sim_manchester/status/868008853325193216

1742

Cotton mills were first opened in England.

1764 

Spinning jenny invented by James Hargreaves: the first machine to improve upon the spinning wheel, patented in 1770.

Spinning jenny

 

image source: https://www.thoughtco.com/industrial-revolution-in-pictures-1991940

1769 

Richard Arkwright patented the water frame: the first powered textile machine.

R. Arkwright’s water frame.

image source: https://medium.com/@ghazalakkas/inventions-in-the-textile-industry-spinning-frame-caedcd3ce490

1773 

The first all-cotton textiles were produced in factories.

1779 

Crompton invented the spinning mule that allowed for greater control over the weaving process.

Crompton’s spinning mule.

image source: https://www.sutori.com/item/samuel-crompton-1779-the-spinning-mule-was-made-of-combined-feature-from-he-wate

1785

 Cartwright patented the power loom. It was improved upon by William Horrocks, known for his invention of the variable speed batton in 1813.

The power loom

image source: https://sites.google.com/a/masdstudent.org/inventions-that-changed-america—the-industrial-revolution/4-the-power-loom

1789

Samuel Slater brought textile machinery design to the United States, spreading for the first time the effects of the british industrial revolution.

1790

Arkwright built the first steam-powered textile factory in Nottingham, England.

1792 

Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin: the machine that automated the separation of cottonseed from the short-staple cotton fiber.

Eli Whitney’s Cotton Gin.

image source: http://ushaplahs201617.blogspot.com/2016/09/the-entrepreneurial-spirit-of-eli.html?m=0

1804

Joseph Marie Jacquar invented the Jacquard Loom that weaved complex designs. Jacquard invented a way of automatically controlling the warp and weft threads on a silk loom by recording patterns of holes in a string of cards.

The Jacquard Loom

image source: http://historicdress.org/omeka/items/show/331

1813

William Horrocks invented the variable speed batton for an improved power loom.

1856

 William Perkin invented the first synthetic dye.


info source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_Revolution#Textile_manufacture