Third Pompeian Style ( 20BC )

The Third Style, also called Ornate Style, became famous because it wanted to react against the austerity of the previous styles.

Villa de Popea (Oplontis)
Villa in Oplontis,(Villa de Popea (Oplontis) the modern Torre Annunziata near Naples in Campania, Italy.

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/e7ae8e8b-4c42-4d83-bacc-c5c6f2af8702 by pablocabezos

Landscape and Architectural Decorative Forms

The Third style is a reaction to the austerity of the previous period. It features more figurative and decorations full of colors and details, with an overall ornamental sensibility, and many times it wants to represent great finesse in executions. This style is typically famous as simplistically elegant.

It dealt with strict rules and symmetry was dictated by the main element, that divided the wall into 3 horizontal and 3 to 5 vertical zones. The vertical zones would later be divided because of the use of geometric motifs or slender columns, light motifs of birds, or semi-fantastical animals depicted in the background. Plants and Egyptian animals were often used to enrich the whole painting.

Naples Museum 143
Detail of third style wall painting from the Villa of Agrippa Postumus. Boscotrecase, Italy. Ca. 10 BC. Fresco.

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/b142e667-9a36-4720-b040-6c2fc2a942fa by Amphipolis

These paintings were improved with soft linear motives, often monochromatic, that took the place of the three-dimensional world of the Second Style.  The picture below is an example in the Villa of Livia in Prima Porta near Rome.

National Museum 28
Villa Farnesina, Rome, Italy, 20 BC.

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/df66849a-35d1-4ef3-9431-3f91cc688fc0 by Amphipolis

National Museum 50
Villa Farnesina, Rome, Italy, 20 BC.

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/d5217555-8365-447b-b1c9-11d5f586fb31 by Amphipolis

Fantasy and Architecture

The Third Style was still architectural but rather than depicting plausible architectural elements that could be experienced in the everyday world, it was all about fantastic and stylized columns and pediments that could only exist in an imagined wall.

The Roman architect Vitruvius was not an enthusiast about Third Style painting, and he criticized the paintings for representing monstrosities rather than real things, “for instance, reeds are put in the place of columns, fluted appendages with curly leaves and volutes, instead of pediments, candelabra supporting representations of shrines, and on top of their pediments numerous tender stalks and volutes growing up from the roots and having human figures senselessly seated upon them…” (Vitr.De arch.VII.5.3).

Mythological scenes, landscapes, temples, rolling hills were commonly used in the Third Style.

It also introduced Egyptian themes and imagery, including scenes  of the Nile as well as Egyptian deities and motifs.

File:Pompeii House of the Vettii 23.jpg
Pompeii House of the Vettii

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/e7882e1c-c963-4658-9edf-663c5ea5e083

File:Pompeii House of the Vettii 26.jpg
Pompeii House of the Vettii

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/0782ba45-0f67-4ab8-9de7-7990655b6364


Info source: https://depts.washington.edu/hrome/Authors/ninamil7/TheFourStylesofRomanWallPaintings/pub_zbarticle_view_printable.html