Pre-Modern

Pre-Modern Style included different sensibilities, movements, and artists such as Thonet, The Shakers, Arts and Crafts, Chicago and Glasgow Schools

Sonargaon Folk Arts & Crafts Museum - a large structure without a roof, but with arches throughout.
Sonargaon Folk Arts & Crafts Museum, example of Arts and Crafts

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/ab7702cf-5378-4b71-a8f5-901dc1ce93d7 by ||-SAM Nasim-||

Thonet Style

Michael Thonet was born in 1796 and was a cabinetmaker. He invented a new process of making furnishings out of bent and glued wooden parts. The Boppard Layerwood Chair was his first true success, although he failed in getting a patent for the technology he used to design it.

A curvy chair with thin legs and back. The seat is made of a basket-weave styled piece of wood.
Boppard Chair (1836-40) designed by Michael Thonet

Image source: https://www.boisbuchet.org/collection/boppard-chair/

Michael Thonet chair with a light brown seat, and straight, simple legs and back.
Chair no. 14, Pre-Modern (1859) designed by Thonet

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/93f9543d-9d1a-4b64-92a7-56fee9f754e6 by Holger.Ellgaard

Shaker Style

This style has no ornaments in the design of the woodwork. The most relevant values of Shaker furniture are good craftsmanship, functionality, and simplicity, and it was believed that all things were meant to be created in the name of religion. Thus, the concern of spirituality looked for perfection in craftsmanship without taking shortcuts.

Dining Table, United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing (“Shakers”), Mount Lebanon, New York (American, active ca. 1750–present), Maple, ash, American, Shaker
Dining Table – United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing – New York

Image source: https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/3180?searchField=All&sortBy=Relevance&ft=Shaker+Furniture&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=8

Farm Table of Reclaimed Wood with Shaker style legs
Farm Table of Reclaimed Wood with Shaker style legs

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/c2b4a995-740b-4608-9f74-b7265dd7a7db by DesignFolly.com

Wash Stand, United Society of Believers in Christ’s Second Appearing (“Shakers”), Mount Lebanon, New York (American, active ca. 1750–present), Pine, American, Shaker
Wash Stand – Shakers – New York

Image source: https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/9734?searchField=All&sortBy=Relevance&ft=Shaker+Furniture&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=9

Arts and Crafts

A group of English designers and writers that wanted a return to well-made by hand, goods began the Arts and Crafts movement. From this movement, come stylized flowers, allegoric figures from the Bible, and literature.

Trellis - A picture of an arts and crafts design that has a plant with orange flowers, 4 blue birds and bugs that surround the plant.
Trellis (1862-1864) – William Morris

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/ab4e11ef-e26c-4002-9320-df94733c4f5c by NinaZed

interior design oxford rogue designs - A white room with white cabinets and dark countertops.
Arts and crafts interior design

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/d0ace494-b3fb-48ab-895c-b8ad34f93404 by rogue-designs

25th Ickworth Wood & Craft Fair 2014, A dinning room table set with three simple chairs.
Arts and Crafts Furniture – Wood & Craft Fair 2014

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/85021393-a558-47df-8cd3-015e9ce7a306 by Dave Catchpole

Glasgow School

The Glasgow School was born as a circle of influential artists and designers that began to work together in Glasgow. Famous groups included “The Four:” Margaret MacDonald, Charles Rennie Mackintosh, MacDonald’s sister Frances and Herbert McNair.

Doorway, Glasgow School of Art: A large simple, brick building with a balcony on the second level, a curvy staircase entrance and rectangular windows.
Glasgow school style building

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/f961b8a1-ba74-4b3c-873f-daaaf4688c48 by stevecadman

Décor d'entrée de la 'Glasgow School of Art'
Glasgow School of Art

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/c1eb87f0-0fd3-4ff9-bc24-fa201179cac3 by dalbera

Chicago School

Much of its early work is also known as the Commercial Style. In the history of art, the first Chicago School was a movement of architects active in Chicago at the beginning of the 20th century. They started promoting new technologies of steel-frame construction in commercial structures, along with emphasis on space. Then, a Second Chicago School started designing with new building technologies structural systems.

Drawing of the Montauk building in Chicago, which is a tall building with many windows.
Montauk building in Chicago

Image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Montauk_Building


Info sources:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Thonet
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shaker_furniture
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arts_and_Crafts_movement
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_School_of_Art
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago_school_(architecture)

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