Gerrit Thomas Rietveld (1888-1964)

Dutch architect and furniture designer, Gerrit Thomas Rietveld was a leading figure of the movement known as De Stijl; his simple shapes, vibrant colors, and geometric assemblies have remained synonymous with De Stijl and its aesthetic.

Gerrit Thomas Rietveld.jpg
Gerrit Thomas Rietveld in 1962

image source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gerrit_Rietveld#/media/File:Gerrit_Thomas_Rietveld.jpg

About his life

Gerrit Thomas Rietveld was born on June 24, 1888, in the Dutch city of Utrecht, where he would spend most of his life. In his early years, he was trained as a cabinetmaker by his father (between 1899 and 1906) and, later on, as a jewelry designer in the studio of C. J. Begeer (1906-1911). Rietveld’s career as an independent architect began in 1919, the same year as his entrance in the De Stijl movement, advocates for geometric abstractism as a means towards harmony and balance, remaining attached to it until 1931. In 1921, he began a period of collaboration with the designer Truus Schröder-Schräde, a Dutch socialite already involved with the avant-garde group, form whom he created the Rietveld Schröder House. By the 1930s, Rietveld’s fame seemed to have passed, but with renewed interest in De Stijl – related production following World War II, he began receiving important commissions once more. Rietveld died on June 25, 1964, in Utrecht.

Hanging Lamp (Gerrit Rietveld) - Museum of Modern Art - Manhattan NY {juli 2012}
Hanging Lamp (Gerrit Rietveld) – 1920- Museum of Modern Art – Manhattan NY

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/6a541166-eb7f-470d-a490-4e312d8a467a by westher

hamonikakoshoten: Gerrit Thomas Rietveld : red and blue...
Red Blue chair (1917-1918)-Gerrit Thomas Rietveld

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/a52d55f4-4ebc-4517-870b-9d4aa18a3d1e by dr vaxon

Body of work

Focused mainly in Holland, his architectural accomplishments include an Amsterdam jewelry shop (1921), the Row Houses at Utrecht (1931-34); the Dutch Pavilion at the Venice Biennial (1954); the Sculpture Pavilion in the Rijksmuseum Kröller-Müller at Otterloo, the Van Gogh Museum in Amsterdam (1955) and – perhaps most importantly – the Schröder House at Utrecht (1924), currently listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 2000.

Rietveld-Schroder House
Rietveld-Schroder House-1924, Utrecht

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/04f804e3-b243-4232-b1ec-71d589aaf2b1 by Lauren Manning

To further elaborate on the latter, the house is a family-sized habitation, built to emphasize a geometric balance between the individual shapes, a flexible interior spatial arrangement, whose unconventional yet fresh approach to architecture has included it among the icons of Modern architecture.

Schröderhouse by Gerrit Rietveld
Rietveld Schroder House / Gerrit Rietveld-1924, Utrecht

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/2f6748d7-9701-497f-988a-048a7b70c6ed by on1stsite.

Gerrit Rietveld Casa Schröder 1923-24. interior
Rietveld Schroder House, Upper level with the iconic chair designed by Rietveld.

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/748443fd-1660-400e-bdcd-2ea8ae60ca63 by ivtoran

Of equal importance is his furniture design activity: the Red and Blue Chair (1918-1923), which looks almost like a tridimensional version of a Piet Mondrian painting; the Schröder 1 (1923); the Zig Zag Chair (1934) and the Utrecht (1935).

Gerrit Rietveld & His Chair
Gerrit Rietveld & His Chair

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/3fa24286-e8b1-4ad7-8677-539eca86c7b9 by Cea.

Cadeira vermelho azul - Gerrit Rietveld
Red Blue chair (1917-1918)- Gerrit Rietveld

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/f8ec4976-ea4a-4ccf-8699-0c9bca4af6d6 by DocinhoLelê

Stylistic traits

Most of his works encapsulate the De Stijl principles: Gerrit Rietveld adopted what he perceived to be a purer form of geometry, consisting of shapes made of straight lines and basic geometries, largely rendered in the three primary colors, plus black and white. He embraced an abstract, stripped-down yet elegant aesthetic. Partly a reaction against the decorative excesses of Art Deco, the reduced quality of De Stijl art was envisioned by its creators as a universal visual language appropriate to the modern era, a means towards reaching a sort of perfect balance, in art as in life.

File:Zigzag-chair.jpg
Zig Zag Chair, Gerrit Rietveld, 1934

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/6fcc44f1-7171-416e-8040-da1c6374992f by macglee (Flickr account)


Info sources:

http://www.encyclopedia.com/people/literature-and-arts/architecture-biographies/gerrit-thomas-rietveld

https://www.artsy.net/artist/gerrit-thomas-rietveld

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Gerrit-Thomas-Rietveld

https://www.cassina.com/en/designer/gerrit-thomas-rietveld

http://www.theartstory.org/movement-de-stijl.htm