The Four Pompeian Styles

The knowledge of pagan Roman murals have survived from the Roman classical world, and is mostly based on frescoes from the area of Pompeii.


The Four “Pompeian” styles of painted wall decoration, were identified by the German archaeologist August Mau (Pompeii, Its Life and Art), in the late nineteenth century.

Classification

Classification by style properly refers to the decorated wall as a whole. When considering paintings in isolation, as often in museums, the ability to assign a specific style to a painting depends on three factors: the design of the painting, the date of the painting, and the type of decoration (especially important in distinguishing III/IV Style) which originally surrounded the painting. Examples in museums have unfortunately been removed from their original context.


Pompeian Styles
Representation of The Four Pompiean Styles

image source: http://www.pompeiin.com/en/Painting_styles.html

The First style, also referred to as structural, incrustation or masonry style is characterized by the simulation of marble veneering, with other simulated elements like suspended alabaster discs in vertical lines, ‘wooden’ beams in yellow and ‘pillars’ and ‘cornices’ in white. It also use vivid color, that is a sign of wealth.

Fresco on a wall in Villa di Arianna in "Stabiae".
Fresco on a wall in Villa di Arianna in Stabiae, (modern Castellammare di Stabia in Campania, Italy).

Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Stabiae_Stanza_Villa_di_Arianna_bb.jpg

In The Second style or ‘illusionism’  walls were decorated with architectural features and trompe l’oeil (trick of the eye) compositions. Elements of this style are reminiscent of the First Style, but this slowly starts to be substituted element by element. This technique consists of highlighting elements to pass them off as three-dimensional realities and was a method used by the Romans.

Fresco from the villa of Publio Fannio Sinistore in Boscoreale.
Fresco from the villa of Publio Fannio Sinistore in Boscoreale, currently located in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.

Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Roman_fresco_from_Boscoreale,_43-30_BCE,_Metropolitan_Museum_of_Art.jpg

The Third style is a reaction to the austerity of the previous period. It is characterized by more figurative and colorful decoration, with an overall more ornamental feeling, and often presents great finesse in execution. This style is typically noted as simplistically elegant.

Villa in Oplontis, the modern Torre Annunziata near Naples in Campania, Italy.
Villa in Oplontis, the modern Torre Annunziata near Naples in Campania, Italy. It shows one wall of the Caldarium, room 8. The motif in the middle represents Herakles in the garden of the Hesperides.

Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Oplontis_Caldarium_room8.jpg

Defined “fantastic style”, it is heterogeneous and incorporates elements from all of the earlier styles; it can be best described as a combination of the three styles that came before.

The Fourth Style in Roman wall painting is generally less ornamented than its predecessor, it is characterized as a baroque reaction to the Third Style‘s mannerism. The style was much more complex, it revives large-scale narrative painting and panoramic vistas while retaining the architectural details of the Second and First Styles.

Fresco on a wall in the fourth style
Lucretius House, Pompeii.

Image source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Casa-Lucretius-Fronto-Pompeii.jpg

After Pompeian Painting

August Mau takes us as far as Pompeii and the paintings found there, but what about Roman painting after 79 C.E.? The Romans did continue to paint their homes and monumental architecture, but there isn’t a Fifth or Sixth Style, and later Roman painting has been called a pastiche of what came before, simply combining elements of earlier styles. The Christian catacombs provide an excellent record of painting in Late Antiquity, combining Roman techniques and Christian subject matter in unique ways.

Info source: https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ancient-art-civilizations/roman/wall-painting/a/roman-wall-painting-styles

http://www.art-and-archaeology.com/roman/painting.html

http://www.essential-humanities.net/western-art/painting/roman/

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