Charles Percier (1764-1838)

A neoclassical French architect, interior decorator, and designer, Charles Percier was an illustrious representative of Directoire Style and Empire Style.

File:Portret van de architect Charles Percier Percier, Charles (titel op object) Leden van het Institut Royal de France (serietitel) Iconographie de l'Institut royal de France (serietitel op object), RP-P-1907-1547.jpg
architect Charles Percier

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/1d6c19a5-3e0b-4d8e-b877-10c85c018296 by Rijksmuseum

Interior Elevation of Reims Cathedral with the Rood Screen and Throne for the Coronation of King Louis XVIII, Charles Percier (French, Paris 1764–1838 Paris), Pen and black ink, with colored wash
Interior Elevation of Reims Cathedral with the Rood Screen and Throne for the Coronation of King Louis XVIII, Charles Percier (French, Paris 1764–1838 Paris), Pen and black ink, with colored wash

Image source: https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/343513?searchField=All&sortBy=Relevance&ft=Charles+Percier&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=19

About his life

Percier was born in Paris in 1764. In 1784, at age nineteen, he won the Prix de Rome, a government-funded scholarship in Rome. Then he met Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine who became his friend for life. Percier & Fontaine became the leading architectural firm of the Napoleonic period, their work influenced the whole of Europe and America and the widespread adoption of the Empire style. In 1801, Percier was appointed government architect.

Tureen, Charles Percier (French, Paris 1764–1838 Paris), Silver gilt, French, Paris
Tureen 1794–1814 -Charles Percier -French

Image source: https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/197467?searchField=All&sortBy=Relevance&ft=Charles+Percier&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=2

What were his major works?

For the old royal palaces and the new Bonapartes residences, together with Fontaine, he designed interiors, walls, and ceilings and designed furniture, accessories, and ornament. They designed the arcades of the rue de Rivoli and rue de Castiglione along the Louvre and designed the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel which connected the Louvre and Tuileries (1806–08), the Louvre and the Palaces of the Tuileries did much of their work. They also worked on the Château de Saint-Cloud and the Château de Fontainebleau.

Paris - Arc de triomphe du Carrousel
Arc du Carrousel, Charles Percier and Pierre Fontaine, 1806–15,

Image source: https://search.creativecommons.org/photos/188b0440-4e64-4890-a013-fcaf3a98b925 by corno.fulgur75

In the Recueil de décorations intérieures (1801–1812) Percier’s products in interior decoration and furniture design were presented, a collection of 72 plates of furniture and furnishings and the most important and influential book of ornaments in France at the epoch. Recueil was Persier’s masterpiece, according to Fontaine’s admission. Although both signatures were affixed to the plates, Persier drew and engraved them himself.

Coin cabinet, Designed by Charles Percier (French, Paris 1764–1838 Paris), Mahogany (probably Swietenia mahagoni), applied and inlaid silver, French, Paris
Coin cabinet ca. 1809–19,  Designed by Charles Percier (French, Paris 1764–1838 Paris), Mahogany (probably Swietenia mahagoni), applied and inlaid silver, French, Paris
Coin cabinet, Designed by Charles Percier (French, Paris 1764–1838 Paris), Mahogany (probably Swietenia mahagoni), applied and inlaid silver, French, Paris
Coin cabinet ca. 1809–19 Designed by Charles Percier

Images source: https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/195473?searchField=All&sortBy=Relevance&ft=Charles+Percier&offset=0&rpp=20&pos=1

How can we identify Percier’s style?

Percier favored luxurious and grandiose renditions of neoclassicism, the so-called Directory style, and the Empire style. The style is distinguished by a small amount of detail and ornamentation, inspired mainly by ancient Roman objects that were discovered during excavations in Pompeii. Directory furniture was the last phase of the Louis XVI style. The Empire style was based on the inspiration of Napoleon by the greatness of Ancient Egypt and imperial Rome.

Design for a Bed and Canopy, Circle of Charles Percier (French, Paris 1764–1838 Paris), Pen and black and gray ink, brush and gray, orange, and red wash
Design for a Bed and Canopy,18th Century–  Circle of Charles Percier (French, Paris 1764–1838 Paris), Pen and black and gray ink, brush and gray, orange, and red wash

Image source: https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/343115?searchField=All&sortBy=Relevance&ft=Charles+Percier&offset=40&rpp=20&pos=43


Info sources:

https://www.britannica.com/art/Empire-style

https://www.britannica.com/art/Directoire-style

https://www.britannica.com/biography/Charles-Percier

Charles Percier: Architecture and Design in an Age of Revolutions

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Percier#cite_note-1

http://www.encyclopedia.com/people/literature-and-arts/architecture-biographies/charles-percier