Neo-classicism, which took inspiration from Ancient Greek and Roman Design, spread throughout Western countries for nearly a century.
Neo-classical architecture is a revival of Classical architecture. The movement explored the logic of Classical volume and a tendency to reuse Classical features. Neo-classical architecture has the following characteristics:
- Grandeur of scale
- Simple geometrical forms
- Greek or Roman details
- Dramatic use of columns
- Blank walls
The Pantheon, in Paris, was originally conceived as a monument for the French nation, as it is the church of Paris’s patron saint. It is Neo-classical because of these features:
- Classical forms fused with Gothic design, including concealed flying buttresses and relatively light stone vaulting.
- The Greek cross present in the piece. Originally, the walls had windows in each bay between the columns.
The Brandenburg Gate is an 18th-century neoclassical monument in Berlin, and one of the most famous landmarks of Germany. It was built on the site of a former city gate used to mark the start of a road from Berlin to the city of Brandenburg. The project was made by Carl Gotthard Langhans and was finished between 1788 and 1791. It has twelve Doric columns, that form five passageways. On the top of the gate is a Quadriga, a chariot pulled by four horses. The new gate was originally called the Peace Gate and the goddess Eirene, who is depicted, symbolizes peace.
Neo-Classic Interior Design
Neo-classical furniture tends to be rectangular and without curves. It features straight lines, with a logical order, and Rococò furniture influence. Ornamentation is sometimes detailed and rich, but is always abundant. There is an important use of painting, light carving relief, and marquetry. Mahogany is the most often present, yet sometimes satinwood was present in this style.